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Alliance Introduction

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1 what is STEM

STEM (), Science (Science), technology (Technology), engineering (Engineering), mathematics (Mathematics). STEM education is science, technology, engineering, mathematics education. In the national strength of the comparison, the number of STEM degrees to become an important indicator.

U. S. government stem programs is a program to encourage the students majoring in the field of science, technology, engineering and Mathematics (stem) plan, and continue to increase investment in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, the training of the students of science and technology science and technology literacy.

2 the United States to promote the roadmap STEM

In 1986, the National Science Council published the report of the Bachelor of science, mathematics and engineering education ". This is believed to be united states stem education integrated strategic milestone, guiding the National Science Foundation will after a few years in the policy and financial support to the reform of higher education in the United States. The report for the first time made clear that the "science, mathematics, engineering and technology" education program is recommended, which is regarded as the beginning of STEM education.

In 1996, the National Science Foundation published a report entitled "shaping the future: a bachelor's degree in science, math, engineering, and technology, and the future" ". Report for the new situation and problems, the school, local governments, industrial and commercial industry and the foundation put forward a clear policy recommendations, including vigorously develop STEM education system in the K-12 education teachers".

January 31, 2006, U. S. President George W. Bush in his state of the union announced a major project -- the American Competitiveness Initiative, the American Competitiveness Initiative (ACI), proposed one of the objectives of education in the era of knowledge economy is to train with the stem accomplishment of talent, and has been referred to as the key to global competitiveness. Thus, the United States continued to increase investment in STEM education, to encourage students majoring in science, technology, engineering and mathematics, to cultivate their scientific and technological literacy.

On October 30, 2007, the National Science Council: report on the national action plan: the urgent need for coping American science, technology, engineering and mathematics education system, proposed a plan of action includes measures in two aspects: one is called for the strengthening of national level of stem education in K-12 and undergraduate stage leading role, in the horizontal and vertical coordination; second is to improve the level of teachers and increase the input of the corresponding research. This report shows that the STEM education from the undergraduate stage to the primary and secondary education stage, hoping to start from the primary and secondary schools to implement STEM education.

It is also in 2007, the U. S. Senate and house of Representatives on August 2, unanimously passed the United States to create opportunities for those who are interested to take a cemetery to promote the technology, education, and science excellence act "(also known as the America Competes Act"). "American Competition Law" a total of 8 parts, including the title of the sixth part of the "education", and other parts of a number of provisions relating to education. Education clause is mainly related to 4 aspects: teacher education, STEM education, foreign language education and undergraduate graduate scholarship.

The importance of the competition law of the United States to the education of STEM, to a great extent, reflects a common concern of American society. For example, the 2007 annual meeting of the American Governors Association in winter stressed the importance of STEM education in the States and the United States to create an innovative environment in the important significance. Also such as the U.S. academic competitiveness Committee in May 2007 published the committee report, the analysis of the 2006 annual total amount of 31 billion dollars in 105 federal STEM education projects.

On January 11, 2009, the National Science Council (National Science Board) on behalf of the NSF released induced elect of the United States of an open letter to President Obama, the theme is "all American students of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education improve the". Clearly pointed out: the economic prosperity of the country and the United States to maintain safety requirements of science and technology of the world's leading and guiding position. STEM education before the university is the foundation of leading position, and it should be one of the most important tasks in the country. The Committee urged the new government to seize this special historical moment, and to mobilize the national strength to support all of the United States students to develop a high level of STEM knowledge and skills.

In 2011, President Obama launched a new "American innovation strategy" to ensure economic growth and prosperity. The new version of "American innovation strategy" pointed out that the future economic growth and international competitiveness of the United States depends on its ability to innovate. "Innovative education movement" directs the public and private sectors to strengthen science, technology, engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education.

In 2011, the Research Committee of the National Academy of Sciences published "K-12 STEM stage of successful education: confirmation of science and technology, engineering and mathematics are effective ways to" report, report that there are three main implementation of STEM education in primary and secondary objectives: one is to expand in the field of STEM will eventually pursue advanced degrees and professional students the number, and expand the participation of STEM in the field of women and minorities; two is to expand the STEM literacy workforce and expand the participation of women and minorities in the team; three is to enhance students' literacy of all STEM, including those who are not engaged in related work or occupation STEM students continue to study the subject of STEM the students.

The United States Governors Association in December 2011 and for stem education action issued the "development of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education agenda: state-level action update" report, analyzes the weak point in 2007 the association proposed the agenda for action, to put forward "the implementation of the specific measures of state-level stem agenda".

Four 3 kinds of accomplishment

Stem education is a "subject", namely the establishment of the subject is based on the integration between different disciplines and formed a new overall, originally distributed subject formed a whole, thus forming when today's increasingly subject to attention, cross field of stem education. The root cause of the United States attaches great importance to STEM education lies in its profound understanding of the landslide of the United States science and technology is a serious shortage of talent, which in the United States nearly 10 years of a large number of literature has been mentioned.

STEM education focuses on cultivating students' four kinds of qualities:

First, scientific literacy (literacy Scientific). Is a use of scientific knowledge and process (such as physical, chemical and Biological Sciences, and earth and Space Science) understand the nature and participate in making decisions about affect the nature of the. It mainly includes three major areas: the life and Health Sciences, earth and environmental science, technology science.

Second, technology literacy (literacy Technological). Refers to the ability to use, manage, understand and evaluate technology. Students should know how to use technology, understand the development process of technology, and have the ability to analyze how new technologies affect themselves, the country and the whole world. Technology is the innovation and transformation of the natural environment to meet the needs of people's reality.

Third, engineering quality (literacy Engineering). Refers to the understanding of the engineering design and development process of technology. The engineering curriculum is based on the project, the integration of multi discipline knowledge, makes difficult to understand the concept of student life and closely related, stimulates the student to solve the problem of interest. Engineering design is the result of the systematic and creative use of science and mathematics in practice.

Fourth, mathematical literacy (literacy Mathematical). It refers to the ability of students to analyze, infer and communicate the idea of mathematical problems in the discovery, expression, explanation and solution of various situations.

Professor team, including the National Education Association contact the California State University, Pomona that, research on the stem, Chino Valley board of education of the stem curriculum teachers Chinese experts to Tsinghua University professor (has) and Xicheng, Dongcheng, Haidian, Fengtai, Chaoyang, Daxing six counties a total of 12 schools and Guangzhou three, five schools in Shanghai, as a research topic and eventually union school results (Textbook) (personnel) through the stem teaching achievements games such as robot competition.

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